Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA World Factbook 2016

From Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, The CIA World Factbook 2016 offers complete and up-to-date information on the world’s nations. This comprehensive guide is packed with detailed information on the politics, populations, military expenditures, and economics of 2015.

For each country, The CIA World Factbook 2016 includes:
• Detailed maps with new geopolitical data
• Statistics on the population of each country, with details on literacy rates, HIV prevalence, and age structure
• New data on military expenditures and capabilities
• Information on each country’s climate and natural hazards
• Details on prominent political parties, and contact information for diplomatic consultation
• Facts on transportation and communication infrastructure
• And much more!
Also included are appendixes with useful abbreviations, international environmental agreements, international organizations and groups, weight and measure conversions, and more. Originally intended for use by government officials, this is a must-have resource for students, travelers, journalists, and business people with a desire to know more about their world.

Peter Fisher
Virtual Reality in Geography (Geographic Information Systems Workshop)

The ideas and techniques of virtual reality are now being made available for the creation of artificial or virtual geographies (a virtual geography refers to the creation of artificial geographies for use in research and teaching, using ideas and techniques from the field of virtual reality (VR)). Such virtual geographies are currently being constructed and used at a number of sites and include virtual cities, landscape visualization, visualizing past and future geographies, visualizing abstract concepts and taking people on virtual field courses.

Virtual Reality in Geography covers ‘through the window’ VR systems, ‘fully immersive’ VR systems and hybrids of the two types. The authors examine the Virtual Reality Modeling Language approach, and explore its deficiencies when applied to real geographic environments. This book will be of great interest to geographers, computer scientists and all those interested in multimedia and computer graphics. There is an accompanying CD-ROM containing a rich selection of images and pieces of virtual reality software.
This is a totally unique book covering an area of geography that is rapidly becoming used in all aspects of the field. It covers all the major uses and methods of virtual reality used by geographers and the lack of anything else written about the subject to date should ensure a wide readership.

Donald Fenna
Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations

Geographic books routinely introduce map projections without providing mathematical explanations of projections and few delve into complex mathematical development or cover the breadth of projections. From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations is a comprehensive reference that offers an explanation of the science of cartography.

The book is a compilation of more than a hundred map projections, from classic conics to contemporary transformations using complex variables. Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes the application of one layer of complex mathematics before continuing on to the next. He also supplies numerous one-page tutorials that review terms and methodologies, helping minimize the challenges of unfamiliar mathematical territory.

Divided into four parts, the first section examines the shape and size of the Earth, then proceeds to investigate the means for relating the curved surface to a flat surface, and addresses scaling. It goes on to cover pertinent principles of projection including literal projecting, true but synthetic projections, secantal projections, pseudocylindrical projections, and pseudoconical projections, as well as the other variants of more serious projections. The book concludes by looking at factors influencing Mean Sea Level and notes the cartographic aspects of current developments.

Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations explains the mathematical development for a large range of projections within a framework of the different cartographic methodologies. This carefully paced book covers more projections, with gentle and progressive immersion in the mathematics involved, than any other book of its kind.

Ashok K. Dutt and et al
Facets of Social Geography: International and Indian Perspectives

Facets of Social Geography: International and Indian Perspectives provides a breadth of information on the nature, scope, history and evolution of social geography along with a good representation of approaches and techniques used in this field. It discusses both conceptual and empirical approaches, and traditional and emergent social geography themes including art and culture, urbanism and crime, social institutions of caste, class and religion, gender, disability, activism, feminism, social planning, enterprise zones, social and economic inequities, post-colonialism, post-modernism and development of quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. India ‘s social structure based on centuries-old Karma principles and a four-level caste system are dealt with in this book to help unravel the country’s social geography.

This book is a felicitation volume in honour of Allen G. Noble, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Geography and Planning at the University of Akron, Ohio, USA. A result of the collective effort of 40 leading national and international scholars, it is an excellent addition to the current stock of knowledge and will be of interest to geographers, sociologists, demographers, urban and regional planners and policy-makers.

James E. Burt PhD
Elementary Statistics for Geographers, Third Edition

Widely adopted, this uniquely comprehensive text introduces the techniques and concepts of statistics in human and physical geography. Unlike other texts that gloss over the conceptual foundations and focus solely on method, the book explains not only how to apply quantitative tools but also why and how they work. Students gain important skills for utilizing both conventional and spatial statistics in their own research, as well as for critically evaluating the work of others. Most chapters are self-contained in order to provide maximum flexibility in course design. Requiring no math beyond algebra, the book is well suited for undergraduate and beginning graduate-level courses. Helpful features include chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and practice problems at the end of each chapter.

New to This Edition
*Restructured and updated to reflect current developments in the field.
*Five entirely new chapters cover graphical methods, spatial relationships, analysis of variance, extending regression analysis, and spatial analysis.
Stan Features even more worked examples, many with accompanying graphics.
*The companion website offers datasets and solutions to selected end-of-chapter exercises.

Marinos Kavouras
Theories of Geographic Concepts: Ontological Approaches to Semantic Integration

Most widely available approaches to semantic integration provide ad-hoc, non-systematic, subjective manual mappings that lead to procrustean amalgamations to fit the target standard, an outcome that pleases no one. Written by experts in the field, Theories of Geographic Concepts: Ontological Approaches to Semantic Integration emphasizes the real issues involved in integrating existing geo-ontologies.

The book addresses theoretical, formal, and pragmatic issues of geographic knowledge representation and integration based on an ontological approach. The authors highlight the importance of philosophical, cognitive, and formal theories in preserving the semantics of geographic concepts during ontology development and integration. They elucidate major theoretical issues, then introduce a number of formal tools. The book delineates a general framework with the necessary processes and guidelines to ontology integration and applies it to a selection of ontology integration cases. It concludes with a retrospection of key issues and identifies open research questions.

Copiously illustrated, the book contains more than 80 illustrations and several examples to various approaches that provide a better understanding of the complexity of ontology integration tasks. The authors provide guidance on selecting the most appropriate approach and details on its application to indicative integration problems.

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