ASTRONOMY AND COSMOLOGY
Ashley Gerard Davies
Volcanism on Io: A Comparison with Earth
The most powerful volcanoes in the Solar System are not on Earth, but on Io, a tiny moon of Jupiter. Whilst Earth and Io are the only bodies in the Solar System to have active, high-temperature volcanoes, those found on Io are larger, hotter, and more violent. This, the first book dedicated to volcanism on Io, contains the latest results from Galileo mission data analysis. As well as investigating the different styles and scales of volcanic activity on Io, it compares these volcanoes to their contemporaries on Earth. The book also provides a background to how volcanoes form and how they erupt, and explains quantitatively how remote-sensing data from spacecraft and telescopes are analysed to reveal the underlying volcanic processes. This richly illustrated book will be a fascinating reference for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in planetary sciences, volcanology, remote sensing and geology.
Pamela Elizabeth Clark
Mercury’s Interior, Surface, and Surrounding Environment: Latest Discoveries
This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury. It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage.
Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, this presents a comprehensive overview of the discoveries from the ten-year MESSENGER mission.
Professor D. W. Hughes, R. Rosner
The Solar Tachocline
Helioseismology has enabled us to probe the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, including how its rotation varies in the solar interior. The unexpected discovery of an abrupt transition – the tachocline – between the differentially rotating convection zone and the uniformly rotating radiative interior has generated considerable interest and raised many fundamental issues. This volume contains invited reviews from distinguished speakers at the first meeting devoted to the tachocline, held at the Isaac Newton Institute. It provides a comprehensive account of the understanding of the properties and dynamics of the tachocline, including both observational results and major theoretical issues, involving both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic behaviour. The Solar Tachocline is a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students in astrophysics, heliospheric physics and geophysics, and the dynamics of fluids and plasmas.
Space Debris: Models and Risk Analysis
The future evolution of the debris environment will be forecast on the basis of traffic models and possible hazard mitigation practices. The text shows how large trackable objects will have re-entry pinpointed and predictions made on related risk assessment for possible ground impact. Models will also be described for meteoroids which are also a prevailing risk.
When the stream of plasma emitted from the Sun (the solar wind) encounters Earth’s magnetic field, it slows down and flows around it, leaving behind a cavity, the magnetosphere. The magnetopause is the surface that separates the solar wind on the outside from the Earth’s magnetic field on the inside. Because the solar wind moves at supersonic speed, a bow shock must form ahead of the magnetopause that acts to slow the solar wind to subsonic speeds.