Extreme Medicine: How Exploration Transformed Medicine in the Twentieth Century
Little more than one hundred years ago, maps of the world still boasted white space: places where no human had ever trod. Within a few short decades the most hostile of the world’s environments had all been conquered. Likewise, in the twentieth century, medicine transformed human life. Doctors took what was routinely fatal and made it survivable. As modernity brought us ever more into different kinds of extremes, doctors pushed the bounds of medical advances and human endurance. Extreme exploration challenged the body in ways that only the vanguard of science could answer. Doctors, scientists, and explorers all share a defining trait: they push on in the face of grim odds. Because of their extreme exploration we not only understand our physiology better; we have also made enormous strides in the science of healing.
Drawing on his own experience as an anesthesiologist, intensive care expert, and NASA adviser, Dr. Kevin Fong examines how cutting-edge medicine pushes the envelope of human survival by studying the human body’s response when tested by physical extremes. Extreme Medicine explores different limits of endurance and the lens each offers on one of the systems of the body. The challenges of Arctic exploration created opportunities for breakthroughs in open heart surgery; battlefield doctors pioneered techniques for skin grafts, heart surgery, and trauma care; underwater and outer space exploration have revolutionized our understanding of breathing, gravity, and much more. Avant-garde medicine is fundamentally changing our ideas about the nature of life and death.
Through astonishing accounts of extraordinary events and pioneering medicine, Fong illustrates the sheer audacity of medical practice at extreme limits, where human life is balanced on a knife’s edge. Extreme Medicine is a gripping debut about the science of healing, but also about exploration in its broadest sense—and about how, by probing the very limits of our biology, we may ultimately return with a better appreciation of how our bodies work, of what life is, and what it means to be human.
Ignorance and Surprise: Science, Society, and Ecological Design
Ignorance and surprise belong together: surprises can make people aware of their own ignorance. And yet, perhaps paradoxically, a surprising event in scientific research–one that defies prediction or risk assessment–is often a window to new and unexpected knowledge. In this book, Matthias Gross examines the relationship between ignorance and surprise, proposing a conceptual framework for handling the unexpected and offering case studies of ecological design that demonstrate the advantages of allowing for surprises and including ignorance in the design and negotiation processes. Gross draws on classical and contemporary sociological accounts of ignorance and surprise in science and ecology and integrates these with the idea of experiment in society. He develops a notion of how unexpected occurrences can be incorporated into a model of scientific and technological development that includes the experimental handling of surprises. Gross discusses different projects in ecological design, including Chicago’s restoration of the shoreline of Lake Michigan and Germany’s revitalization of brownfields near Leipzig. These cases show how ignorance and surprise can successfully play out in ecological design projects, and how the acknowledgment of the unknown can become a part of decision making. The appropriation of surprises can lead to robust design strategies. Ecological design, Gross argues, is neither a linear process of master planning nor a process of trial and error but a carefully coordinated process of dealing with unexpected turns by means of experimental practice. Inside Technology series
William F. Felice
The Global New Deal: Economic and Social Human Rights in World Politics, Second Edition
Global human suffering in the 21st century seems bitterly entrenched, with almost half of the world’s people remaining impoverished and over 26,000 children dying daily from preventable causes. This powerful and empowering text offers a way forward, presenting a realistic roadmap for enhanced benevolent global governance with practical, workable solutions to mass poverty. Now fully updated, including new chapters, The Global New Deal outlines the legal responsibilities for all institutions, organizations, and states under international law to respect, protect, and fulfill economic and social human rights. William Felice focuses on seven key areas: the dynamics within international political economy that contribute to economic inequality and create human suffering, the U.N.’s approach to economic and social human rights, the priority of ecosystem protection within all development strategies, the degree of racial bias prevalent in global economics, the relationship between gender equality and economic growth, the impact of military spending on human development, and the importance for the United States to adopt a human-rights approach to poverty alleviation. Arguing for a ‘global new deal,’ a set of international and national public policy proposals designed to protect the vulnerable and end needless suffering, this book provides a viable direction for structural reform to protect those left behind by the global economy.
T. S. Eliot
Notes towards the Definition of Culture
The word culture, in recent years, has been widely and erroneously employed in political, educational, and journalistic contexts. In helping to define a word so greatly misused, T. S. Eliot contradicts many of our popular assumptions about culture, reminding us that it is not the possession of a class but of a whole society and yet its preservation may depend on the continuance of a class system, and that a “classless” society may be a society in which culture has ceased to exist.
Surveying the contemporary scene, Mr. Eliot points out that our standards of culture are lower than they were fifty years ago, finds evidence of this decay in every department of human activity, and sees no reason why the decay of culture should not proceed much further. He suggests that culture and religion have a common root and that if one decays the other may die too. He reminds us that “the Russians have been the first modern people to practise the political direction of culture consciously, and to attack at every point the culture of any people whom they wish to dominate.” The appendix includes his broadcasts to Europe, ending with a plea to preserve the legacy of Greece, Rome, and Israel, and Europe’s legacy throughout the last 2,000 years.
Introduction to Personality: Toward an Integrative Science of the Person
Reflecting the latest developments, this eighth edition paints a picture of the field as a cumulative, integrative science that builds on its rich past. It provides a much more coherent view of the whole functioning individual in the social world. Throughout the chapters, emphasis is placed on practical applications and personal relevance to everyday life in a clear and compelling way. The book also explores the essential features and contributions from the field’s heritage