Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I
For Germany and Austria-Hungary the First World War started with high hopes for a rapid, decisive outcome. Convinced that right was on their side and fearful of the enemies that encircled them, they threw themselves resolutely into battle. Yet, despite the initial halting of a brutal Russian invasion, the Central Powers’ war plans soon unravelled. Germany’s attack on France failed. Austria-Hungary’s armies suffered catastrophic losses at Russian and Serbian hands. Hopes of a quick victory lay in ruins.
For the Central Powers the war now became a siege on a monstrous scale. Britain’s ruthless intervention cut sea routes to central Europe and mobilised the world against them. Germany and Austria-Hungary were to be strangled of war supplies and food, their soldiers overwhelmed by better armed enemies, and their civilians brought to the brink of starvation. Conquest and plunder, land offensives, and submarine warfare all proved powerless to counter or break the blockade. The Central Powers were trapped in the Allies’ ever-tightening ring of steel.
Alexander Watson’s compelling new history retells the war from the perspectives of its instigators and losers, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians. This is the story not just of their leaders in Berlin and Vienna, but above all of the people. Only through their unprecedented mobilisation could the conflict last so long and be so bitterly fought, and only with the waning of their commitment did it end. The war shattered their societies, destroyed their states and bequeathed to east-central Europe a poisonous legacy of unredeemed sacrifice, suffering, race hatred and violence. A major re-evaluation of the First World War, Ring of Steel is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the last century of European history.
J E Kaufmann
The Forts and Fortifications of Europe 1815-1945: The Central States: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Czechoslovakia
After the Napoleonic Wars the borders of Central Europe were redrawn and relative peace endured across the region, but the volatile politics of the late nineteenth century generated an atmosphere of fear and distrust, and it gave rise to a new era of fortress building, and this is the subject of this highly illustrated new study. The authors describe how defensive lines and structures on a massive scale were constructed along national frontiers to deter aggression. The Germans, Austro-Hungarians and Czechs all embarked on ambitious building programs. Artillery positions, barbed-wire networks, casemates, concrete bunkers, trench lines, observation posts all sprang up in a vain attempt to keep the peace and to delay the invader. The strategic thinking that gave rise to these defensive schemes is described in detail in this study, as is the planning, design and construction of the lines themselves. Their operational history in wartime, in particular during the Second World War, is a key element of the account.
The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: The Battle for Hearts and Minds
This is a major new contribution to the historiography of the First World War. It examines the lively battle of ideas which helped destroy Austria-Hungary. It also assesses, for the first time, the weapon of “front propaganda” as used by and against the Empire on the Italian and Eastern Fronts. Based on material in eight languages, the work challenges accepted views about Britain’s primacy in the field of propaganda, while casting fresh light on the creation of Yugoslavia and the viability of the Habsburg Empire in its last years.
Soviet Air Force in Hungary and Austria
Bilingual book English / Hungarian
Peasant art in Austria and Hungary
Their axe-headed sticks, which also serve as weapons, are of engraved brass, or of wood inlaid with brass, some of the work being beautifully executed. Their textiles and wooden objects, which they ornament with pierced or chip-carving, are particularly good.
816 Illustrations, primarily from photographs with more than 24 of these in colour
Contents include examples of – Peasant Houses; Furniture and Wood-carving; Pottery; Metal-work and Jewellery; Leather-work; Embroidery; Lace; Textiles; Types of Peasant Dress
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